JUNE 25-29,

J.Breuste, H. Feldmann, O Uhlmann (Eds.)-
Urban Ecology- ©Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

l am not quite certain if today we can accept the following premise: the cities of the 21 st century will probably retain the urban matrix of the same cities from the past centuries. The reason for slight doubt rests on the fact that in all likelihood the present motor and pedestrian traffic of today will be essentially different from the traffic at the end of the second decade of the following century. Today, as passangers, we cover the continental distances between two cities or two regions by buses, cars, trains or ships. We use planes to span great distances as fast as possible. Walking is a necessary evil. When you watch from the low flying plane a densely populated region, what you first spot is a grid of numerous roads. Thousands of buses, cars or trains move on them. At the end of the second decade of the next century all those roads will be used by a ten times smaller number of buses, cars or trains. People will move in a standing or sitting position individually in special space suits working by their own energy-powered propulsion. People in space suits will not have to use roads but will move in a way similar to that of the American missile tomahavk. Petrol will not be used any longer. Tankers will be turned into ship-hotels. Obviously, the network of roads will be superfluous. On big motor roads with two lines over 20 m wide vehicles will use only one present line for both directions. On the other line and on the surface beside it linear cities will be built. In these linear cities HABITAT ECOLOGY project will considerably change the housing. Cities of today are designed in such way that housing is practically separated from the buildings which serve for other purposes. Industrial objects are usually situated on the city outskirts. In the city centres are administration buildings, trading and cultural centres, science, art and sports centres. True, the groundfloors of residential buildings are sometimes used for shops, etc. HABITAT ECOLOGY IM-192 is created as a community, village or city in which all the functions of life are united in one place. lt is well known that great Kikutake launched the same idea in his Ecopolis. However, Kikutake's tower, over 1,000 m tall is a city for 75,000 inhabitans, whereas HABITAT ECOLOGY IM-192 is a community, village or town with at least 100 and at the most 10,000 inhabitants. Within one 10 km long linear city it is possible to place 20-60 HABITAT ECOLOGY IM-192 communities, villages or small towns which are sustainable even without a strong mutual link. There are two variant forms of the HABITAT ECOLOGY. The first HABITAT ECOLOGY IM-192 is a clearly defined model of 192 (124) apartments of 66 m2 to 196 m2. Of course, it can be symmetrically or asymetrically expanded on all sides. lt comprise 8 structures-blocks with 9 completely closed atriums and another six atriums open on one side. That is, 8 structures-blocks use 15 atriums altogether. The first variant form is characterized by:
1... flat roofs with open or closed areas for greenhouses, ateliers, workshops, etc,
2... mini-towers which serve for storing agricultural products, tools, etc.
The apartments are on the ground floor, the first and the second floor. All apartments on the second floor have closed greenhouses 33 m2 each. Above the second floor are gardens, workshops or ateliers. These spaces can be open or closed. The apartment of 66 m2 has another 66 m2 with the gardens, workshops or ateliers. The same is true of the192 m2 apartment HABITAT ECOLOGY IM-192 has united two systems: housing and the system of activities which provide for the survival of inhabitans. The displayed model/variant form can comprise192 apartmants of 66 m2 at the most and is probably the smallest unit which could function quite independently as a village or town. It means that it is possible to grow fruit and vegetables and grain, keep domestic animals (sheep, cows, rabbits) in greenhouses and open terraces and grow fish in the ponds. Joiners/cabinet makers, electricians, plumbers, locksmiths, shoemakers, hairdressers, cosmeticians, bakers, fashion designers, tinsmiths and other craftsman will have their small kiosks-workshops on the terraces which will be mutually inter-linked. Of course, they will all help those people who live on the qroundfloor, first and second floor. It would be ideal if craftsman themselves lived under the terraces. I see HABITAT ECOLOGY IM-192 first of all as a community of the young and the old who take pleasure in active lives on the terraces of the houses in which they live. The second variant form HABITAT ECOLOGY IM-32TP (coauthor is Tibor Palankai from Hungary) is considerably different from the first one. Here the apartment has its own closed greenhouse. Big spacious halls are running along the staircases. The halls can comprise quite a number of kiosks (stands, boths) with different functions. lt would be best if the tenants owned the kiosks. Both variant forms of the HABITAT ECOLOGY with large quiet atriums are, I hope, a contribution to the:

new theory of housing.